Tips to Help Leadership Understand Workplace Investigations and How to Help Ease the Process

What is the workplace investigation process usually like? How does it differ based on the type of conflict, such as sexual harassment, bullying, or harassment?

Read more: Workplace Bullying vs. Harassment

The workplace investigation process typically follows a structured and systematic approach, regardless of the type of conflict being investigated, whether it’s a workplace bullying investigation, a workplace harassment investigation, or an investigation into sexual harassment in the workplace. However, the specific details and focus of the investigation may vary depending on the nature of the conflict. Here is a general outline of the workplace HR investigation process, highlighting differences based on the type of conflict:

What is the workplace investigation process with a third-party investigator?

Step 1: Complaint Receipt and Initial Assessment

Sexual Harassment: When a sexual harassment complaint is received, it’s crucial to immediately assess the severity and urgency of the situation, as it may involve legal implications. Immediate actions may include separating the parties involved, ensuring the complainant’s safety, and preserving evidence.

Bullying or Harassment: Complaints related to bullying or harassment should also be taken seriously, but they may not always require immediate legal intervention. The initial assessment focuses on understanding the alleged behaviour and its impact.

Read more: Tips for Handling Formal Employee Complaints

Read more: Formal Employee Complaints: What Not to Do

Step 2: Designating an Investigator

For all types of conflicts, the organization should appoint a qualified and impartial investigator, either from within the organization (e.g., HR) or an external third-party investigator, depending on the severity and sensitivity of the case.

Step 3: Gathering Information

Sexual Harassment: Investigating sexual harassment often involves collecting evidence, such as emails, messages, or witness statements, that demonstrate unwelcome and offensive conduct of a sexual nature.

Bullying or Harassment: Investigations for bullying or harassment may involve a broader range of evidence, including witness interviews and a review of communications or incidents.

Step 4: Interviews

The investigator interviews the complainant, the accused, and any witnesses separately. These interviews aim to gather information, establish a timeline, and understand each party’s perspective.

Step 5: Document Review

The investigator reviews relevant documents, such as emails, text messages, personnel files, or incident reports, to corroborate the information gathered during interviews.

Step 6: Assessing Credibility

The investigator evaluates the credibility of all parties involved by considering consistency in statements, corroborating evidence, and any potential biases or motives.

Step 7: Analysis and Findings

The investigator analyzes all the gathered information to determine whether the alleged conduct occurred. They provide findings on whether the behaviour violated company policies or laws.

Step 8: Report and Recommendations

The investigator prepares a comprehensive report outlining the investigation process, findings, and recommendations for corrective actions, if necessary.

Step 9: Resolution and Follow-Up

Sexual Harassment: In sexual harassment cases, the resolution may involve disciplinary actions, counselling, or legal measures, depending on the severity.

Bullying or Harassment: Resolutions for bullying or harassment may include disciplinary actions, mediation, training, or policy revisions.

Read more: Workplace Investigation Aftermath

Step 10: Communication

The HR department or management communicates the investigation outcome and any resulting actions to the involved parties while ensuring confidentiality is maintained to the extent possible.

Step 11: Preventive Measures

After the investigation, organizations often take steps to prevent similar conflicts in the future, such as implementing training, revising policies, or promoting a more inclusive workplace culture.

Read more: Signs of a Hostile Work Environment

It’s important to note that the process can vary based on the specific circumstances of each case and the organization’s policies. Additionally, in cases involving serious misconduct, organizations may involve legal counsel to ensure compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

Regardless of the type of conflict, it’s crucial for the workplace investigation process to be conducted impartially, thoroughly, and in compliance with all relevant laws and regulations.

What should an HR manager look for when hiring a third-party investigator?

Hiring a third-party investigator for workplace investigations is a critical decision that can significantly impact the outcome and credibility of the investigation. HR managers should carefully evaluate potential investigators to ensure they are qualified and impartial.

Read more: When HR Should Hire a Mediator to Resolve Workplace Conflict

If your organization is facing a serious internal conflict, it may be time to consult a third-party professional. Not just anyone will do – it’s incredibly important to do your research and pick the right investigator near you to conduct a thorough, unbiased workplace investigation. The goal is to get all the facts required to make a thoughtful, informed decision based on the outcome of the process.

Discover Global Mindful Solutions’ Investigation services to better understand how we can help you reach conflict resolution and maintain productivity in your workplace.

Explore Workplace Investigation Services

Here are the key factors to consider when hiring a third-party investigator:

Experience and areas of expertise

Look for investigators with extensive experience in conducting workplace investigations. They should be knowledgeable about employment laws, regulations, and industry best practices.

Impartiality and independence

Ensure the investigator has no personal or professional conflicts of interest within your organization. They should be geniuinely impartial and independent, providing an unbiased perspective.

Read more: Professionalism, Impartiality, and Empathy in Workplace Investigations

Reputation, references, and portfolio

Check the investigator’s reputation and ask for references from past clients or organizations they have worked with. Seek feedback on their professionalism, thoroughness, and the quality of their reports.

Credentials and certification

Investigative professionals may have relevant certifications or memberships in organizations or other relevant industry associations. These can indicate their commitment to professionalism.

Understanding of company culture

Ensure the investigator understands your organization’s culture and values. This can help them approach the investigation in a way that is sensitive to your company’s unique dynamics.

Strong communication skills

Investigative reports need to be clear, concise, and well-documented. Look for an investigator who can communicate effectively in both verbal and written forms.

Timeliness and availability

Inquire about their availability to start the investigation promptly. Timeliness is crucial in addressing workplace issues promptly.

Read more: The Cost of Unresolved Conflict

Expertise in conflict resolution

An investigator should possess strong conflict resolution skills to help parties involved in the investigation come to a resolution.

Read more: Taking a Trauma-Informed Approach in Workplace Conflict Resolution

Knowledge and understanding of local laws

Ensure the investigator is well-versed in local, state, and federal employment laws that may apply to your organization.

Technological proficiency

Given the digital nature of modern workplaces, the investigator should be comfortable using technology to review electronic documents and communications.

Cost and budget considerations

Understand the investigator’s fee structure and ensure it aligns with your budget. Request a precise estimate of costs and what these costs cover.

Confidentiality measures

Investigative processes often involve sensitive information. Inquire about the measures the investigator takes to maintain confidentiality throughout the process.

Sample work and methodology

Request a sample investigative report or an overview of their investigation methodology. This can help you gauge their thoroughness and professionalism.

Insurance and liability coverage

Ensure the investigator has professional liability insurance to cover any potential legal issues that may arise during the investigation.

Compliance with ethical standards

Investigative professionals should adhere to ethical standards and guidelines. Inquire about their commitment to maintaining ethical conduct during investigations.

Accessibility and reporting process

Understand how the investigator plans to keep you informed of the investigation’s progress and how they will report their findings.

Compatibility with your organization and its goals

Assess whether the investigator’s approach and style align with your organization’s values and expectations for the investigation.

Selecting the right third-party investigator is crucial to ensure a fair and effective workplace investigation. Take the time to thoroughly vet potential candidates to make an informed decision that will help your organization address workplace issues with professionalism and integrity.

Read more: Workplace Investigations and Mental Health

How can an organization’s HR department prepare for a workplace investigation by a third-party investigator?

Preparing for a workplace investigation by a third-party investigator is essential to ensure a fair and impartial process that addresses any workplace issues or concerns. Here are the steps an organization’s HR department should take to prepare for such an investigation:

Workplace conflicts can arise in any organization, and sometimes, these conflicts escalate to a level where external investigations become necessary. Regulatory bodies, law enforcement agencies, or independent third-party firms may conduct these investigations. As the guardians of employee well-being and organizational compliance, Human Resources (HR) plays a critical role in preparing the organization for such investigations. Let’s explore the steps HR professionals can take to navigate an external investigation due to workplace conflict effectively.

Establish solid policies and procedures

Prevention is always better than cure. By proactively implementing robust policies and procedures, HR can help create a culture of respect and fairness within the organization. Clear guidelines on harassment, discrimination, ethical conduct, and reporting mechanisms should be communicated thoroughly to all employees. Regular training sessions on these policies can ensure that everyone understands their rights and responsibilities.

Read more: Recognizing and Responding to Racial Discrimination in the Office

A strong foundation of clear policies and procedures is crucial for both preventing workplace conflicts and effectively managing them when they occur.

Maintain accurate documentation

Accurate documentation is essential during an external investigation as it serves as evidence to support or refute claims made by involved parties. HR should maintain detailed records related to incidents reported, conversations held with employees, actions taken, witness statements (if any).

Assemble all relevant documents, emails, records, and any other evidence related to the investigation. This includes personnel files, policies, and any previous complaints or investigations.

This helps demonstrate the organization’s commitment to transparency and assists investigators in obtaining an accurate understanding of the situation.

Maintaining accurate documentation not only strengthens our defence during external investigations but also promotes fairness by ensuring consistency in decision-making.

Preserve evidence

In preparation for an external investigation, HR must ensure that all relevant evidence is correctly preserved. This includes emails, text messages, surveillance footage (if applicable), performance evaluations, disciplinary records, and any other documents that could be significant to the investigation. Failure to protect and retain evidence could result in severe consequences for the organization.

Review internal processes

Before an external investigation commences, HR should conduct a comprehensive review of internal processes and procedures related to conflict resolution and reporting mechanisms. This evaluation helps identify any gaps or weaknesses that need to be addressed promptly. By proactively addressing these issues, organizations can demonstrate their commitment to a fair and impartial investigation process.

Engage a third-party investigator or mediator

In complex workplace conflicts, HR should engage a third-party investigator early in the process. Legal professionals with expertise in employment law can provide:

  • Guidance on navigating investigations.
  • Ensuring compliance with relevant laws and regulations.
  • Protecting the rights of both employees and the organization.

Seeking legal advice from experienced professionals not only enhances our understanding of the investigative process but also minimizes potential legal risks.

Communicate Transparently

During an external investigation, HR must maintain open lines of communication with all involved parties while respecting confidentiality requirements. Regular updates should be provided to employees regarding the progress of the investigation without divulging sensitive information that could compromise its integrity. Clear channels for reporting concerns or HR investigation questions should also be established to instill confidence in employees during this challenging time.

Understand the need for an HR investigation

Clearly define the scope and purpose of the investigation. Understand the specific issues or complaints that have led to the investigation.

Select an impartial HR investigator

Choose a third-party investigator who is experienced, impartial, and has no conflicts of interest within the organization.

Notify all relevant parties

Inform all relevant parties about the investigation, including the complainant, the accused, and witnesses. Maintain confidentiality to the extent possible to protect the privacy and rights of all involved.

Decide on a timeline

Create a chronological timeline of events leading up to the investigation. This will help the investigator understand the context of the situation.

Identify key witnesses

Compile a list of potential witnesses who can provide information related to the investigation. Ensure that these individuals know their roles and responsibilities in the process.

Prepare the investigator

Meet with the third-party investigator to provide them with a thorough briefing on the case, including the background, relevant policies, and any specific questions or concerns the organization has.

Establish a clear communication plan

Develop a clear communication plan for how updates on the investigation will be provided to all parties involved, as well as to the broader organization to maintain transparency.

Maintain confidentiality

Emphasize the importance of confidentiality to all parties involved, including witnesses, to prevent tampering with evidence or witness intimidation.

Cooperate fully

Ensure that all employees, including managers and supervisors, cooperate fully with the investigation. This includes making themselves available for interviews and providing requested documentation.

Avoid retaliation

Make it clear that retaliation against any individual involved in the investigation, whether as a complainant, witness, or the accused, will not be tolerated.

Comply with legal requirements

Ensure that the investigation complies with all relevant laws and regulations, including those related to privacy and discrimination.

Document the process and file the reports

Maintain detailed records of all actions taken during the investigation, including notes from interviews, copies of documents reviewed, and any decisions made.

Review and act appropriately on findings

After the investigation, review the findings and take appropriate action based on the investigator’s recommendations. This may include disciplinary actions, policy changes, or training programs.

Always follow up

Continue to monitor the situation after the investigation to ensure that any recommended changes are implemented and that the workplace environment improves.

Learn and make improvements

Use the investigation findings as an opportunity to learn and improve the organization’s policies, procedures, and workplace culture.

By following these steps, an organization’s HR department can ensure that a workplace investigation conducted by a third-party investigator is thorough, fair, and conducted in a manner that respects the rights and privacy of all parties involved.


While workplace conflicts can be disruptive and damaging to an organization’s reputation, proactive measures taken by HR can help prepare organizations for external investigations effectively. By establishing strong policies, maintaining accurate documentation, preserving evidence, reviewing internal processes, engaging legal counsel when necessary, and fostering transparent communication, HR can support a fair and thorough investigative process while safeguarding employee well-being and organizational interests.

External investigations may be daunting, but with careful preparation and adherence to best practices, HR professionals can navigate them successfully while upholding fairness, compliance, and justice within their organizations.

If your organization is experiencing roadblocks in finding effective ways to manage workplace conflict and need to consult a neutral, experienced third party for professional investigation services, consulting with Global Mindful Solutions will help you overcome challenging situations while empowering all participants involved to settle on an agreeable solution that propels your organization forward.

At Global Mindful Solutions, we have established processes that aim to provide insightful, comprehensive solutions with a compassionate and unbiased approach. This allows everyone involved to focus on getting back to work and continue making a positive contribution to their organization while leading a fulfilling role in their careers.

Contact Global Mindful Solutions to get started with neutral, knowledgeable, and effective mediation, facilitation, and restoration services.


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343 Preston Street, Suite 1100, Ottawa, ON, K1S 1N4

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